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48

Chip Scale Review May • June • 2018

[ChipScaleReview.com]

Summary

T h e a r e a o f r e c y c l a b l e a n d

biodeg radable mater ials for use i n

semiconductor packaging is relatively

unexplored to date. There have been

s ome nove l c on c e p t s ex p l o r e d i n

recent literature, but less so in regards

to supplanting some, if not all of the

typical bill of materials used. Granted,

t h e p e r f o r ma n c e a n d r e l i a b i l i t y

requirements for most standard forms of

chip packages may render incorporating

green materials more difficult. And,

green materials are not without their

own issues and may result in unintended

consequences at some process step

or interactions with another package

component. But with the number of

electronic devices being created and sold

growing yearly, the issue of dealing with

these products when no longer needed or

useful will need to be addressed sooner

or later.

Usi ng the example of Ch i na , the

government came out with its “National

IC Industry Development Guidelines”

in 2014 and its “Made in China 2025”

industrial policy in 2015 [16]. Both

initiatives contain the goal of increasing

t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f d ome s t i c a l l y -

produced semiconductors and making

China a global force in ICs through

the use of the $150 billion National

IC Indust r y Investment Fund—also

known as “Big (investment) Fund”--

to help local companies compete with

foreign r ivals, as well as boost i ng

internal manufacturing capabilities [17].

Currently, China consumes nearly 45%

of the world’s semiconductor output

– currently valued at nearly $340B –

but domestic IC production is a small

fraction of that, perhaps only 15-20%

[18]. The balance must be imported,

which has made ICs the leading import

categor y i nto Ch i na , toppi ng even

crude oil or iron ore [19]. Given these

statistics, China’s internal semiconductor

manufacturing still accounts for tens of

millions of packaged IC units produced

per year. If China were to fulfill even

part of its Made in China 2025 goals,

that could mean hundreds of millions of

chips undergoing the packaging process

domestically, which will then ultimately

need to be disposed or recycled when

the electronic end products are broken

or obsolete. And this does not take into

account all the waste materials generated

i n t he i n it ial manufact u r i ng steps.

Therefore, innovations in materials

used in semiconductor packaging could

prove to be some of t he impor t ant

and necessar y steps in becoming a

more environmentally-friendly process

all around.

References

1.

http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ waste/rohs_eee/index_en.htm

2. J . M a x w e l l , “ G e t t h e l e a d

o u t – S t a n d a r d s a i d i n

R oHS c om p l i a n c e , ” A STM

Standardization News, Vol. 42,

No. 6, Nov/Dec 2014.

3. Adapted from JEDEC, JEP150,

“Stress-test-driven qualification

o f a n d f a i l u r e me c h a n i s m s

associated with assembled solid

state surface-mount components,”

May 2005, Table 1.

4. A. Chen, R. H.Y. Lo,

Semiconductor

Packaging: Materials Interaction

a n d Re l i a b i l i t y

, Ch . 2 , CRC

Press, 2012.

5. S. Derouin, “Flexible, organic

a nd biodeg r a d able: St a n fo r d